Kill a dragon.
Get to 25 skill in any magical skill tree, then speak to Faralda at the college entrance. (If she isn’t there, press the doorbell, by the ramp)
This quest is auto completed when you kill a dragon.
There is a new way of becoming a Thane of Whiterun. Complete “The Blessings of Nature” quest (Danica by the Gildrergreen tree to start) and talk to Jarl Balgruuf when the Gildergreen tree is repaired\the sapling blooms (note: this requires you to complete any other quest to simulate the passing of time). He’ll thank you and allow you to do the standard thaneship quest (help the people of the hold).
You can buy Breezehome before this at a much more expensive price, but unless you are thane you do not get the housecarl.
Thieves Guild Requirements is included in the list, which requires a certain amount of pockets picked/items stolen. Check the requirements in that mod’s MCM.
Dragonborn content is available after completing “A Blade in the Dark” during the Main Quest.